Solar (Photovoltaic) Electricity Production 

Solar energy is shown as the energy of Watt that falls to 1 m2 surface with the unit of W/m2 (Watt per square). This energy which falls to 1m2 surface on earth from the sun as Watt is called as ‘’Solar Radiation’’. The electricity production capacity of the solar radiation is measured with its annual electricity production potential on the horizontal surface with the unit of kWh/m2/year and called “Global Horizontal Irradiation”. Global Horizontal Irradiation values on the earth change in the range of 700-2800 kWh/m2 depending on the geographic location. It is in the range of 1100-2000 kWh/m2 in Turkey. Naturally, the high Global Horizontal Irradiation means the high electricity production capacity.

Türkiye Solar Işınım Haritası

The electricity production from the solar energy is generated by photovoltaic panels. Photovoltaic panels transform photon energy received from the sun with solar radiation into direct current (DC) electric power. The DC electric power obtained in this way is turned to alternating current (AC) via invertors and can be used as On-Grid (grid connected) or Off-Grid (not connected to grid). 

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On-Grid Systems

They are the systems that give the generated electricity to the grid. Therefore, two-sided counters are used in grid connection. However, this system’s usage is possible only when appropriate legal regulations are available. In Turkey, on-grid systems have been allowed to be used since 2012 with the law no.6094

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Off-Grid Systems

They are used when the needed energy is not so high or it is very difficult and costly to reach to the grid. Their costs are high because additional devices like battery and charge control units are needed to store electric and so they aren’t preferred except compulsory cases.

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Isolated Systems

They are the systems which are connected to the grid, but use the whole produced electricity only for the internal consumption. This system is required additional equipment between the system and grid.